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Alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana consumption is associated with increased odds of same-day substance co- and tri-use.

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    • Abstract:
      Background: Little is known about event-level patterns of marijuana co- or tri-use with alcohol and tobacco. Thus, the study goal was to examine patterns of same-day alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana co- and tri-use at the individual level in non-treatment-seeking alcohol users.Methods: Participants (N = 551) completed an in-person interview for alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use over the previous 30 days, and the event-level substance use patterns of n = 179 participants who reported using each of these substances at least once per month were analyzed.Results: The use of alcohol, marijuana, or cigarettes independently increased the probability of subsequent, simultaneous co-use of one of the two remaining substances. The co-use of alcohol with cigarettes and marijuana with cigarettes produced generally additive effects on the odds of same day tri-use of marijuana and alcohol, respectively. Conversely, the co-use of alcohol and marijuana produced sub-additive effects on likelihood of cigarette use. Sex moderated several of the observed patterns of co- and tri-use: the relationship between alcohol or cigarette use predicting marijuana co-use was stronger in men, whereas the observed additive relationships between drug co-use leading to tri-use was stronger in women.Conclusions: The presented results may aid in the understanding of how simultaneous co-use of marijuana with alcohol and/or tobacco relates to the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of comorbid and trimorbid substance use disorder. Replication and extension of the results in treatment seeking populations using more fine-grained analysis approaches, e.g. ecological momentary assessment, is needed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Abstract:
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