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Therapeutic Potential of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Extracellular Vesicles in the Treatment of Radiation Lesions—A Review.

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    • Abstract:
      Ionising radiation-induced normal tissue damage is a major concern in clinic and public health. It is the most limiting factor in radiotherapy treatment of malignant diseases. It can also cause a serious harm to populations exposed to accidental radiation exposure or nuclear warfare. With regard to the clinical use of radiation, there has been a number of modalities used in the field of radiotherapy. These includes physical modalities such modified collimators or fractionation schedules in radiotherapy. In addition, there are a number of pharmacological agents such as essential fatty acids, vasoactive drugs, enzyme inhibitors, antioxidants, and growth factors for the prevention or treatment of radiation lesions in general. However, at present, there is no standard procedure for the treatment of radiation-induced normal tissue lesions. Stem cells and their role in tissue regeneration have been known to biologists, in particular to radiobiologists, for many years. It was only recently that the potential of stem cells was studied in the treatment of radiation lesions. Stem cells, immediately after their successful isolation from a variety of animal and human tissues, demonstrated their likely application in the treatment of various diseases. This paper describes the types and origin of stem cells, their characteristics, current research, and reviews their potential in the treatment and regeneration of radiation induced normal tissue lesions. Adult stem cells, among those mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), are the most extensively studied of stem cells. This review focuses on the effects of MSCs in the treatment of radiation lesions. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Abstract:
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