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Advances in Regeneration of Retinal Ganglion Cells and Optic Nerves.

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  • Additional Information
    • Abstract:
      Glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder due to the dysfunction of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). RGCs function as the only output neurons conveying the detected light information from the retina to the brain, which is a bottleneck of vision formation. RGCs in mammals cannot regenerate if injured, and RGC subtypes differ dramatically in their ability to survive and regenerate after injury. Recently, novel RGC subtypes and markers have been uncovered in succession. Meanwhile, apart from great advances in RGC axon regeneration, some degree of experimental RGC regeneration has been achieved by the in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells or in vivo somatic cell reprogramming, which provides insights into the future therapy of myriad neurodegenerative disorders. Further approaches to the combination of different factors will be necessary to develop efficacious future therapeutic strategies to promote ultimate axon and RGC regeneration and functional vision recovery following injury. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Abstract:
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