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Background for Real-Time Monitoring and Intervention Related to Alcohol Use.

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    • Abstract:
      Real-time assessment, known as ecological momentary assessment (EMA), and real-time intervention (ecological momentary intervention [EMI]) can significantly extend the reach and impact of interventions to help individuals reduce their drinking behavior. For EMA, the user provides information on the variable of interest (e.g., drinking or craving) via a mobile device. This data reporting can occur either at prespecified times or in certain high-risk situations. The primary benefits of EMA include external validity, minimized recall bias, and the ability to capture dynamic patterns in human behavior. EMI refers to interventions that are delivered via mobile devices at the time when the user needs it (i.e., in a high-risk situation). Key constructs of EMI are what interventions are delivered and when they are delivered. The timing of the EMI often is determined by the user's EMA reports. Both EMA and EMI have been studied in people with alcohol use disorders. EMA and EMI often are used in conjunction with each other because EMA can help inform the optimal timing of EMI and help tailor its content. Further development of high-impact, algorithm-driven, technology-mediated real-time intervention may help reduce drinking and promote positive health behavior change. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]