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An Exploratory Study of Adaptive Scuba Diving's Effects on Psychological Well-Being among Military Veterans.

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  • Additional Information
    • Affiliation:
      Clinician in the behavioral medicine unit at Marion VA Medical Center in Illinois
      Assistant professor in the Faculty of Kinesiology, Sport, and Recreation at the University of Alberta
      Lecturer in the Department of Public Health and Recreation Professions at Southern Illinois University Carbondale
    • Subject Terms:
    • Subject Terms:
    • Abstract:
      Because many military veterans face mental health issues, it is important to research and practice alternative treatments including therapeutic recreation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a single 45-minute adaptive scuba diving session on veterans' psychological well-being, specifically state-level mindfulness (Brown & Ryan, 2003) and contentment (Taylor, 2015). A one-group pretest-posttest evaluation was conducted with 28 veteran divers. Of them, 16 had mental health issues (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder), while 11 had physical impairments (e.g., spinal cord injuries). Statistical results indicated that the post-dive mindfulness and contentment levels were significantly higher than their pre-dive counterparts (p = .007 and < .001, respectively). Moreover, the changes in mindfulness through scuba diving were positively correlated with the changes in contentment. The significant increases in mindfulness were present only among veterans with mental or physical health issues. These findings are discussed in relation to the literature on scuba diving, therapeutic recreation, mindfulness, and contentment.
    • Journal Subset:
      Allied Health; Peer Reviewed; USA
    • ISSN:
      0040-5914
    • MEDLINE Info:
      NLM UID: 0230530
    • Publication Date:
      20200609
    • Publication Date:
      20200611
    • Accession Number:
      http://dx.doi.org/10.18666/TRJ-2020-V54-I2-9954
    • Accession Number:
      143624489
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      BLUMHORST, E.; SHINTARO KONO; CAVE, J. An Exploratory Study of Adaptive Scuba Diving’s Effects on Psychological Well-Being among Military Veterans. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, [s. l.], v. 54, n. 2, p. 173–188, 2020. DOI 10.18666/TRJ-2020-V54-I2-9954. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=ccm&AN=143624489. Acesso em: 21 set. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Blumhorst E, Shintaro Kono, Cave J. An Exploratory Study of Adaptive Scuba Diving’s Effects on Psychological Well-Being among Military Veterans. Therapeutic Recreation Journal. 2020;54(2):173-188. doi:10.18666/TRJ-2020-V54-I2-9954
    • APA:
      Blumhorst, E., Shintaro Kono, & Cave, J. (2020). An Exploratory Study of Adaptive Scuba Diving’s Effects on Psychological Well-Being among Military Veterans. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 54(2), 173–188. https://doi.org/10.18666/TRJ-2020-V54-I2-9954
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Blumhorst, Ethan, Shintaro Kono, and Jasmine Cave. 2020. “An Exploratory Study of Adaptive Scuba Diving’s Effects on Psychological Well-Being among Military Veterans.” Therapeutic Recreation Journal 54 (2): 173–88. doi:10.18666/TRJ-2020-V54-I2-9954.
    • Harvard:
      Blumhorst, E., Shintaro Kono and Cave, J. (2020) ‘An Exploratory Study of Adaptive Scuba Diving’s Effects on Psychological Well-Being among Military Veterans’, Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 54(2), pp. 173–188. doi: 10.18666/TRJ-2020-V54-I2-9954.
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Blumhorst, E, Shintaro Kono & Cave, J 2020, ‘An Exploratory Study of Adaptive Scuba Diving’s Effects on Psychological Well-Being among Military Veterans’, Therapeutic Recreation Journal, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 173–188, viewed 21 September 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Blumhorst, Ethan, et al. “An Exploratory Study of Adaptive Scuba Diving’s Effects on Psychological Well-Being among Military Veterans.” Therapeutic Recreation Journal, vol. 54, no. 2, Apr. 2020, pp. 173–188. EBSCOhost, doi:10.18666/TRJ-2020-V54-I2-9954.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Blumhorst, Ethan, Shintaro Kono, and Jasmine Cave. “An Exploratory Study of Adaptive Scuba Diving’s Effects on Psychological Well-Being among Military Veterans.” Therapeutic Recreation Journal 54, no. 2 (April 2020): 173–88. doi:10.18666/TRJ-2020-V54-I2-9954.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Blumhorst E, Shintaro Kono, Cave J. An Exploratory Study of Adaptive Scuba Diving’s Effects on Psychological Well-Being among Military Veterans. Therapeutic Recreation Journal [Internet]. 2020 Apr [cited 2020 Sep 21];54(2):173–88. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=ccm&AN=143624489