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Role of calpains in diabetes mellitus: A mini review.

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    • Abstract:
      Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by defects in haepatic glucose production, insulin action and insulin secretion, which can also lead to a variety of secondary disorders. The disease can lead to death without treatment and it has been predicted that T2DM will affect 215 million people world-wide by 2010. T2DM is a multifactorial condition whose precise genetic causes and biochemical defects have not been fully elucidated but at both levels, calpains appear to play a role. Positional cloning studies mapped T2DM susceptibility to CAPN10, the gene encoding the intracellular cysteine protease, calpain 10. Further studies have shown a number of non-coding polymorphisms in CAPN10 to be functionally associated with T2DM whilst the identification of coding polymorphisms, suggested that mutant calpain 10 proteins may also contribute to the disease. The presence of both calpain 10 and its mRNA have been demonstrated in tissues from several mammalian species whilst calpain 10 appears to be associated with pathways involved in glucose metabolism, insulin secretion and insulin action. It appears that other calpains may also participate in these pathways and here we present an overview of recent studies on calpains and their putative role in T2DM. (Mol Cell Biochem 261: 161–167, 2004) [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Abstract:
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