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Charles Henry Turner and the cognitive behavior of bees.

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    • Abstract:
      Social movements in several countries are stimulating a reconsideration of academic structures and historic figures and promoting reparation and recognition of marginalized and forgotten black scientists. A paradigmatic case in that sense is Charles Henry Turner (1867–1923) who was the first African American to receive a graduate degree at the University of Cincinnati and one of the first in earning a PhD degree of the University of Chicago. He performed numerous experiments on sensory perception, orientation, and mating of solitary and social bees, most of which have been unjustly forgotten despite the fact that they anticipated fundamental concepts of animal cognition. We review these studies and highlight the importance of his ideas for modern views of animal cognition and the study of bee behavior. We conclude that besides his scientific contributions, Turner is an inspiration for scientists fighting against social adversity and prejudices. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Abstract:
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