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Bruxism

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  • Additional Information
    • Contributors:
      Alan Glaros PhD
    • Publication Information:
      BMJ Publishing Group, 2018.
    • Publication Date:
      2018
    • Abstract:
      Bruxism is an umbrella term grouping together different motor phenomena of jaw muscles, such as grinding, and/or clenching of the teeth and bracing, and/or thrusting of the mandible. It can occur during sleep (sleep bruxism [SB]) or wakefulness (awake bruxism [AB]). Etiology is mainly dependent on central factors (stress sensitivity, emotions, personality features, sleep regulation, autonomic nervous system), rather than on peripheral nervous system function or dental morphology and occlusion. The condition covers a pathophysiologic continuum, and treatment need depends on the presence of clinically relevant consequences rather than the presence of bruxism itself. Depending on the amount of muscle activity and the resistance of the target structures, bruxism may result in tooth wear or cracks, fracture of dental restorations, implant failure, muscle hypertrophy, pain and/or fatigue in jaw muscles, headache, toothache, disturbance of bed partner's sleep, and reduction in overall quality of life. A diagnostic grading for clinical and research purposes has been recently proposed, recommending that any investigation specifies the diagnosis of sleep or awake bruxism as “possible”, “probable”, or “definite” based on the diagnostic approach being used. Self-report, questionnaires, and interviews are suitable, at best, to identify a possible bruxism, while integration with clinical examination leads to a diagnosis of probable bruxism. For a definite diagnosis, measurement with audio-video polysomnography (PSG) or, alternatively, sleep-time electromyography (EMG) is needed for SB. Hour-long, wake-time EMG or, as an emerging option, ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is needed for a definite AB diagnosis. Treatment is symptomatic and conditioned by the lack of evidence about when bruxism should actually be treated. Management options include different types of oral appliances (OA), cognitive-behavioural approaches (counseling, biofeedback, contingent electrical stimulation, relaxation techniques, hypnosis), psychotherapy, physiotherapy, and, rarely, relaxant drugs for short-term use.
    • Author Affiliations:
      Professor, Chair, and Vice Dean, Department of Oral Health Sciences, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, University of Amsterdam, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
      Associate Professor School of Dentistry, Department of Neuroscience, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
      Adjunct Professor, School of Dentistry, Department of Neuroscience, University of Padua, Padua, Italy
      Associate Dean and Professor, Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences, Kansas City, MO
    • Relation:
      Temporomandibular joint syndrome; Evaluation of headache in adults; Dystonias; Parasomnias in adults; Parasomnias in children; Trigeminal neuralgia; Ear, nose, and throat
    • Accession Number:
      edsbbp.708
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      FRANK LOBBEZOO DDS, P.; DANIELE MANFREDINI DDDS, P.; ALESSANDRO BRACCI DDS. Bruxism. [s. l.], 2018. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbbp&AN=edsbbp.708. Acesso em: 1 out. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Frank Lobbezoo DDS P, Daniele Manfredini DDDS P, Alessandro Bracci DDS. Bruxism. November 2018. Accessed October 1, 2020. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbbp&AN=edsbbp.708
    • APA:
      Frank Lobbezoo DDS, P., Daniele Manfredini DDDS, P., & Alessandro Bracci DDS. (2018). Bruxism.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Frank Lobbezoo DDS, PhD, PhD Daniele Manfredini DDDS, and Alessandro Bracci DDS. 2018. “Bruxism,” November. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbbp&AN=edsbbp.708.
    • Harvard:
      Frank Lobbezoo DDS, P., Daniele Manfredini DDDS, P. and Alessandro Bracci DDS (2018) ‘Bruxism’. Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbbp&AN=edsbbp.708 (Accessed: 1 October 2020).
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Frank Lobbezoo DDS, P, Daniele Manfredini DDDS, P & Alessandro Bracci DDS 2018, ‘Bruxism’, viewed 1 October 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Frank Lobbezoo DDS, PhD, et al. Bruxism. Nov. 2018. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbbp&AN=edsbbp.708.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Frank Lobbezoo DDS, PhD, PhD Daniele Manfredini DDDS, and Alessandro Bracci DDS. “Bruxism,” November 28, 2018. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbbp&AN=edsbbp.708.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Frank Lobbezoo DDS P, Daniele Manfredini DDDS P, Alessandro Bracci DDS. Bruxism. 2018 Nov 28 [cited 2020 Oct 1]; Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsbbp&AN=edsbbp.708
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