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Behavioral landscapes and earth mover’s distance: A new approach for studying individual differences in density distributions

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  • Additional Information
    • Affiliation:
      a Departments of Human Development & Family Studies and Psychology, Pennsylvania State University, United States
      b German Institute for Economic Research (DIW), Berlin, Germany
      c Department of Kinesiology, Pennsylvania State University, United States
      d Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University, United States
      e Department of Psychology, Pennsylvania State University, United States
    • Keywords:
      Longitudinal analysis
      Ecological momentary assessment
      Intensive longitudinal data
      Interpersonal behavior
    • Abstract:
      Contemporary views of personality highlight intraindividual variability. We forward a general method for quantifying individual differences in behavioral tendencies based on Earth Mover’s Distance. Using data from 150 individuals who reported on their and others’ interpersonal behavior in 64,112 social interactions, we illustrate how this new approach can advance notions of personality as density distributions. Results provide independent confirmation and establish validity of existing representations of individual differences in interpersonal behavior, and identify new dimensions and profiles of personality and well-being. Benefits of the EMD method include freedom from assumptions about the shape and form of density distributions, generality of application to n-dimensional behavior captured in experience sampling studies, and natural integration of personality structure and dynamics.
    • ISSN:
      0092-6566
    • Accession Number:
      10.1016/j.jrp.2016.06.010
    • Accession Number:
      S0092656616300551
    • Copyright:
      © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      RAM, N. et al. Behavioral landscapes and earth mover’s distance: A new approach for studying individual differences in density distributions. Journal of Research in Personality, [s. l.], v. 69, p. 191–205, 2017. DOI 10.1016/j.jrp.2016.06.010. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edselp&AN=S0092656616300551. Acesso em: 20 set. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Ram N, Benson L, Brick TR, Conroy DE, Pincus AL. Behavioral landscapes and earth mover’s distance: A new approach for studying individual differences in density distributions. Journal of Research in Personality. 2017;69:191-205. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2016.06.010
    • APA:
      Ram, N., Benson, L., Brick, T. R., Conroy, D. E., & Pincus, A. L. (2017). Behavioral landscapes and earth mover’s distance: A new approach for studying individual differences in density distributions. Journal of Research in Personality, 69, 191–205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2016.06.010
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Ram, Nilam, Lizbeth Benson, Timothy R. Brick, David E. Conroy, and Aaron L. Pincus. 2017. “Behavioral Landscapes and Earth Mover’s Distance: A New Approach for Studying Individual Differences in Density Distributions.” Journal of Research in Personality 69 (August): 191–205. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2016.06.010.
    • Harvard:
      Ram, N. et al. (2017) ‘Behavioral landscapes and earth mover’s distance: A new approach for studying individual differences in density distributions’, Journal of Research in Personality, 69, pp. 191–205. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2016.06.010.
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Ram, N, Benson, L, Brick, TR, Conroy, DE & Pincus, AL 2017, ‘Behavioral landscapes and earth mover’s distance: A new approach for studying individual differences in density distributions’, Journal of Research in Personality, vol. 69, pp. 191–205, viewed 20 September 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Ram, Nilam, et al. “Behavioral Landscapes and Earth Mover’s Distance: A New Approach for Studying Individual Differences in Density Distributions.” Journal of Research in Personality, vol. 69, Aug. 2017, pp. 191–205. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2016.06.010.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Ram, Nilam, Lizbeth Benson, Timothy R. Brick, David E. Conroy, and Aaron L. Pincus. “Behavioral Landscapes and Earth Mover’s Distance: A New Approach for Studying Individual Differences in Density Distributions.” Journal of Research in Personality 69 (August 1, 2017): 191–205. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2016.06.010.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Ram N, Benson L, Brick TR, Conroy DE, Pincus AL. Behavioral landscapes and earth mover’s distance: A new approach for studying individual differences in density distributions. Journal of Research in Personality [Internet]. 2017 Aug 1 [cited 2020 Sep 20];69:191–205. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edselp&AN=S0092656616300551