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Exploring the associations between gambling cravings, self-efficacy, and gambling episodes: An Ecological Momentary Assessment study

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  • Additional Information
    • Affiliation:
      a School of Psychology, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia
      b Centre for Adolescent Health, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia
      c Melbourne Graduate School of Education, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia
    • Keywords:
      Gambling
      Craving
      Self-efficacy
      Relapse
      Smartphone
      Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA)
    • Abstract:
      Highlights •Real-time Ecological Momentary Assessment of gambling cravings, self-efficacy, and gambling episodes.•Gambling cravings and craving self-efficacy predicted gambling episodes and expenditure.•Gambling self-efficacy and gambling duration were reciprocally related.•Low craving self-efficacy exacerbated gambling expenditure when cravings were infrequent.•People who gambled for coping motives or positive reinforcement, and people with comorbid substance use, were most vulnerable to gambling.
    • Abstract:
      Design Secondary analysis of a 4-week Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) study conducted in Tasmania, Australia.
    • Abstract:
      Setting Data were collected via telephone interviews (pre-EMA) and smartphones (EMA).
    • Abstract:
      Participants Ninety-seven regular gamblers (mean age: 45.90 years, 57.73% male) reported 5,113 observations.
    • Abstract:
      Measurements EMA measures included gambling cravings (occurrence, frequency, intensity), self-efficacy (craving-related, gambling-related), and gambling behaviour (episodes, expenditure, duration). Pre-EMA measures included gambling (severity; harms; motives; high-risk situations), mental health (depressive symptoms; anxiety symptoms) and addiction-related (alcohol use; smoking; substance use) moderator variables.
    • Abstract:
      Findings Mixed-effects binary logistic regression analyses revealed that gambling cravings predicted gambling episodes (OR = 2.23, 95% CI:1.61, 3.08), gambling self-efficacy and gambling duration were reciprocally related (OR = 4.65, 95% CI:1.08, 20.04; OR = 0.21, 95% CI:0.05, 0.93), and craving self-efficacy predicted gambling expenditure (OR = 0.30, 95% CI:0.10, 0.86). Moderation analyses revealed that: (1) craving self-efficacy exacerbated craving frequency with gambling expenditure; (2) coping motives exacerbated gambling self-efficacy with gambling expenditure; (3) high-risk positive reinforcement situations exacerbated craving intensity and gambling self-efficacy with gambling episodes, and gambling episode with craving occurrence; and (4) substance use exacerbated gambling self-efficacy with duration, and buffered gambling expenditure with craving intensity.
    • Abstract:
      Conclusions These findings have implications for the development of real-time gambling interventions that aim to reduce gambling cravings and increase self-efficacy, which could be targeted to vulnerable individuals, including people who frequently gambled for coping purposes or positive reinforcement, and people with comorbid substance use.
    • ISSN:
      0306-4603
    • Accession Number:
      10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106574
    • Accession Number:
      S0306460320307048
    • Copyright:
      © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      HAWKER, C. O. et al. Exploring the associations between gambling cravings, self-efficacy, and gambling episodes: An Ecological Momentary Assessment study. Addictive Behaviors, [s. l.], v. 112, 2021. DOI 10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106574. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edselp&AN=S0306460320307048. Acesso em: 1 out. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Hawker CO, Merkouris SS, Youssef GJ, Dowling NA. Exploring the associations between gambling cravings, self-efficacy, and gambling episodes: An Ecological Momentary Assessment study. Addictive Behaviors. 2021;112. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106574
    • APA:
      Hawker, C. O., Merkouris, S. S., Youssef, G. J., & Dowling, N. A. (2021). Exploring the associations between gambling cravings, self-efficacy, and gambling episodes: An Ecological Momentary Assessment study. Addictive Behaviors, 112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106574
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Hawker, C.O., S.S. Merkouris, G.J. Youssef, and N.A. Dowling. 2021. “Exploring the Associations between Gambling Cravings, Self-Efficacy, and Gambling Episodes: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.” Addictive Behaviors 112 (January). doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106574.
    • Harvard:
      Hawker, C. O. et al. (2021) ‘Exploring the associations between gambling cravings, self-efficacy, and gambling episodes: An Ecological Momentary Assessment study’, Addictive Behaviors, 112. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106574.
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Hawker, CO, Merkouris, SS, Youssef, GJ & Dowling, NA 2021, ‘Exploring the associations between gambling cravings, self-efficacy, and gambling episodes: An Ecological Momentary Assessment study’, Addictive Behaviors, vol. 112, viewed 1 October 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Hawker, C. O., et al. “Exploring the Associations between Gambling Cravings, Self-Efficacy, and Gambling Episodes: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.” Addictive Behaviors, vol. 112, Jan. 2021. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106574.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Hawker, C.O., S.S. Merkouris, G.J. Youssef, and N.A. Dowling. “Exploring the Associations between Gambling Cravings, Self-Efficacy, and Gambling Episodes: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.” Addictive Behaviors 112 (January 1, 2021). doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106574.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Hawker CO, Merkouris SS, Youssef GJ, Dowling NA. Exploring the associations between gambling cravings, self-efficacy, and gambling episodes: An Ecological Momentary Assessment study. Addictive Behaviors [Internet]. 2021 Jan 1 [cited 2020 Oct 1];112. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edselp&AN=S0306460320307048