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Expectancy effect: Impact of pill administration on cognitive performance in healthy seniors

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  • Additional Information
    • Author(s):
    • Abstract:
      Expectancy or placebo effects on cognitive function have not been well studied. To determine the effect of taking pills on cognitive function, 40 participants were randomly assigned to a pill or no-pill condition. Healthy seniors who took a 2-week supply of methylcellulose pills, which they were told was an experimental cognitive enhancer, were compared to seniors not taking any pills. There were 2 primary outcome measures defined prior to the study - Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) Word List delayed recall and Stroop color word task time - as well as 7 other cognitive outcome measures. There was a significant effect of pill taking on the 2 primary outcome measures. There was also an effect of pill taking on choice reaction time and Word List immediate recall but not on the other 5 secondary cognitive outcome measures. In an exploratory analysis of potential predictors of the expectancy effect, perceived stress and self-efficacy but not personality traits interacted with the pill-taking effect on cognitive function. Further characterizing and understanding this observed expectancy effect is important to maximize cognitive health and improve clinical trial design. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR
    • Accession Number:
      Attention; Geriatrics; Memory; Placebo effect; Self-efficacy; Stress
    • Publication Information:
      Publication Type: Journal Article ISSN: 1380-3395
    • Accession Number:
      EP28056194
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      OKEN, B. S. et al. Expectancy effect: Impact of pill administration on cognitive performance in healthy seniors. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, [s. l.], v. 30, n. 1, p. 7–17, 2008. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=gnh&AN=EP28056194. Acesso em: 24 out. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Oken BS, Flegal K, Zajdel D, Kishiyama S, Haas M, Peters D. Expectancy effect: Impact of pill administration on cognitive performance in healthy seniors. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. 2008;30(1):7-17. Accessed October 24, 2020. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=gnh&AN=EP28056194
    • APA:
      Oken, B. S., Flegal, K., Zajdel, D., Kishiyama, S., Haas, M., & Peters, D. (2008). Expectancy effect: Impact of pill administration on cognitive performance in healthy seniors. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 30(1), 7–17.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Oken, Barry S., Kristin Flegal, Daniel Zajdel, Shirley Kishiyama, Mitchell Haas, and Dawn Peters. 2008. “Expectancy Effect: Impact of Pill Administration on Cognitive Performance in Healthy Seniors.” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 30 (1): 7–17. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=gnh&AN=EP28056194.
    • Harvard:
      Oken, B. S. et al. (2008) ‘Expectancy effect: Impact of pill administration on cognitive performance in healthy seniors’, Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 30(1), pp. 7–17. Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=gnh&AN=EP28056194 (Accessed: 24 October 2020).
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Oken, BS, Flegal, K, Zajdel, D, Kishiyama, S, Haas, M & Peters, D 2008, ‘Expectancy effect: Impact of pill administration on cognitive performance in healthy seniors’, Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 7–17, viewed 24 October 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Oken, Barry S., et al. “Expectancy Effect: Impact of Pill Administration on Cognitive Performance in Healthy Seniors.” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 30, no. 1, Jan. 2008, pp. 7–17. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=gnh&AN=EP28056194.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Oken, Barry S., Kristin Flegal, Daniel Zajdel, Shirley Kishiyama, Mitchell Haas, and Dawn Peters. “Expectancy Effect: Impact of Pill Administration on Cognitive Performance in Healthy Seniors.” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 30, no. 1 (January 1, 2008): 7–17. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=gnh&AN=EP28056194.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Oken BS, Flegal K, Zajdel D, Kishiyama S, Haas M, Peters D. Expectancy effect: Impact of pill administration on cognitive performance in healthy seniors. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology [Internet]. 2008 Jan 1 [cited 2020 Oct 24];30(1):7–17. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=gnh&AN=EP28056194