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Positive Affect and Distressed Affect Over the Day in Older People

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  • Additional Information
    • Author(s):
    • Abstract:
      The purpose of this study was to assess patterns of affect over the day in a representative sample of older people, with particular emphasis on the impact of loneliness and depression. Momentary assessments of positive and distressed affect were obtained four times over a single day from 4,258 men and women aged 52-79 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Positive and distressed affect were only modestly correlated (r = -0.23). Positive affect was low on waking and peaked in the early evening, while distressed affect decreased progressively over the day. The diurnal variation in positive affect was greater in participants <65 years compared with older individuals. Positive affect was greater in men, married participants and in healthy individuals, while distressed affect was higher among women, unmarried and lower socioeconomic status respondents, and in those with limiting longstanding illnesses. Depressed individuals experienced lower positive affect throughout the day, while differences in distressed affect were more pronounced in the morning. Loneliness was associated with lower positive affect and greater distressed affect independently of age, gender, marital status, paid employment, socioeconomic status, health and depression. This study demonstrates that ecological momentary assessment of affect is feasible on a large scale in older individuals, and generates information about positive and distress that is complementary to standard questionnaire measures. The associations with loneliness highlight the everyday distress and reduced happiness and excitement experienced by lonely older men and women, and these may contribute to enhanced risks to physical and mental health. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR (Copyright of Psychology & Aging is the property of American Psychological Association and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract.)
    • Accession Number:
      AFFECT (Psychology); aging; ecological momentary assessment; positive affect
    • Publication Information:
      Publication Type: Journal Article ISSN: 0882-7974
    • Accession Number:
      EP69682760
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      STEPTOE, A.; LEIGH, E. S.; KUMARI, M. Positive Affect and Distressed Affect Over the Day in Older People. Psychology and Aging, [s. l.], v. 26, n. 4, p. 956–965, 2011. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=gnh&AN=EP69682760. Acesso em: 26 nov. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Steptoe A, Leigh ES, Kumari M. Positive Affect and Distressed Affect Over the Day in Older People. Psychology and Aging. 2011;26(4):956-965. Accessed November 26, 2020. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=gnh&AN=EP69682760
    • APA:
      Steptoe, A., Leigh, E. S., & Kumari, M. (2011). Positive Affect and Distressed Affect Over the Day in Older People. Psychology and Aging, 26(4), 956–965.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Steptoe, Andrew, Elizabeth S. Leigh, and Meena Kumari. 2011. “Positive Affect and Distressed Affect Over the Day in Older People.” Psychology and Aging 26 (4): 956–65. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=gnh&AN=EP69682760.
    • Harvard:
      Steptoe, A., Leigh, E. S. and Kumari, M. (2011) ‘Positive Affect and Distressed Affect Over the Day in Older People’, Psychology and Aging, 26(4), pp. 956–965. Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=gnh&AN=EP69682760 (Accessed: 26 November 2020).
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Steptoe, A, Leigh, ES & Kumari, M 2011, ‘Positive Affect and Distressed Affect Over the Day in Older People’, Psychology and Aging, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 956–965, viewed 26 November 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Steptoe, Andrew, et al. “Positive Affect and Distressed Affect Over the Day in Older People.” Psychology and Aging, vol. 26, no. 4, Dec. 2011, pp. 956–965. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=gnh&AN=EP69682760.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Steptoe, Andrew, Elizabeth S. Leigh, and Meena Kumari. “Positive Affect and Distressed Affect Over the Day in Older People.” Psychology and Aging 26, no. 4 (December 1, 2011): 956–65. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=gnh&AN=EP69682760.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Steptoe A, Leigh ES, Kumari M. Positive Affect and Distressed Affect Over the Day in Older People. Psychology and Aging [Internet]. 2011 Dec 1 [cited 2020 Nov 26];26(4):956–65. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=gnh&AN=EP69682760