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Fonio (Digitaria exilis) in West Africa: towards improving nutrient quality.

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  • Additional Information
    • Author(s):
    • Address:
      Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    • Publication Information:
      Netherlands
    • Abstract:
      Fonio (Digitaria exilis) is the most ancient West African cereal representing a key crop in food supply during crop shortfall periods. However, less is known about its potential to contribute improving nutrition and health. In this context, the thesis investigated whether the nutrient quality of fonio, especially iron, could be improved to potentially contribute to the daily intake of the population. Research was done in the framework of the EU funded FP6 Fonio project. Investigations in this thesis comprised: (i) the consumption pattern of fonio and its contribution to nutrient intakes (24 hr recall among 108 women aged 15-49 year-old, Bamako, Mali); (ii) the validation of the Mali food composition database (TACAM) for assessing population level intakes of energy and nutrients (weighed food record and chemical analysis of duplicate portion among 36 women out of 108 previously selected); (iii) the genetic diversity, nutrient content especially bioavailable iron and zinc content and the effect of processing on fonio landraces (chemical and amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of 12 Malian fonio landraces); (iv) the sensory variability among fonio landraces (sensory analysis of 20 fonio landraces from Mali, Guinea and Burkina Faso); (v) improved food processing combining dephytinisation with native phytase and fortification of fonio diet with iron to increase iron absorption (iron absorption study among 16 women aged 18-30 years, Cotonou, Benin). The results indicated that fonio is consumed one to three times/month by 68% of our study population with an average daily portion size of 152 g when consumed. Only 5% of the study population consumed fonio dishes contributing to 16% of the daily energy intake for the consumed portion size, reflecting the low consumption of fonio related to significant barriers such as availability of cooked fonio in urban markets, lack of consistent supply throughout the year, difficult post-harvest processing, high-quality product demand, hard texture coupled with time consuming cooking process, and high cost of fonio products. The use of the adjusted TACAM is acceptable for estimating average intake at population level for macronutrients, calcium and zinc in a low intake population, but not for carbohydrate and iron intakes which were underestimated and vitamin A which was overestimated, nor for probability of adequate intakes and nutrient densities. At individual level, significant differences were observed between estimated and analyzed intakes for all the nutrients increasing with higher intakes. Fonio landraces in West Africa were different for their visual (colour and presence/absence of impurities) and their textural (consistency of cooked grain) characteristics. We found no meaningful genetic diversity among the 12 landraces in Mali (indicated by the very low polymorphism level of 3.5%) and the proximate composition, iron and zinc content showed no significant differences among landraces. Traditional processing reduced iron (96% reduction) and phytate (75% reduction) content, however, the molar ratio of phytate to iron remained above the critical cut-off of >1 indicating poor iron bioavailability. Zinc concentration was hardly affected by processing and cooking. Processing experiments confirmed that whole wheat flour is a good source of natural phytase to produce low phytic acid containing fonio porridge. Dephytinisation using intrinsic wheat phytase reduced phytate-to-iron molar ratio from 24:1 to 3:1 after only 1 hour of incubation at 50°C with pH of 5.0, and iron fortification further reduced the molar ratio to 0.3:1. Dephytinisation with wheat phytase and fortification significantly increased iron absorption ratio from 2.6% to 8.2% in fonio porridges.
    • Number of References:
      many ref.
    • Subject Terms:
      Postharvest Research;Plant Breeding;Plant Genetic Resources;Tropical Diseases;Agricultural Biotechnology;Wheat, Barley & Triticale Abstracts
    • Subject Terms:
    • Accession Number:
      Bourkina Fasso, color, Dahomey, data banks, inositol hexaphosphate, nutritional value, organoleptic properties, phytate, quality for nutrition, saccharides
    • CABICODES:
      Field Crops (FF005) (New March 2000)
      Plant Breeding and Genetics (FF020)
      Crop Produce (QQ050)
      Food Processing (General) (QQ100)
      Food Composition and Quality (QQ500)
      Food Chemistry (QQ600) (New June 2002)
      Diet Studies (VV110)
      General Molecular Biology (ZZ360) (Discontinued March 2000)
    • Accession Number:
      7440-70-2; 7439-89-6; 37288-11-2; 9001-89-2; 83-86-3; 7440-66-6
    • Publication Information:
      Thesis; ISBN:9789462574557
    • Accession Number:
      20153331057
    • Copyright:
      ©2015 CAB International
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      KORÉISSI, Y. Fonio (Digitaria exilis) in West Africa: towards improving nutrient quality. 2015. Wageningen University, Wageningen; Netherlands, 2015. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20153331057. Acesso em: 20 set. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Koréissi Y. Fonio (Digitaria exilis) in West Africa: towards improving nutrient quality. Fonio (Digitaria exilis) in West Africa: towards improving nutrient quality. 2015:178. Accessed September 20, 2020. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20153331057
    • APA:
      Koréissi, Y. (2015). Fonio (Digitaria exilis) in West Africa: towards improving nutrient quality [Wageningen University]. In Fonio (Digitaria exilis) in West Africa: towards improving nutrient quality (p. 178).
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Koréissi, Y. 2015. “Fonio (Digitaria Exilis) in West Africa: Towards Improving Nutrient Quality.” Fonio (Digitaria Exilis) in West Africa: Towards Improving Nutrient Quality. Wageningen; Netherlands: Wageningen University. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20153331057.
    • Harvard:
      Koréissi, Y. (2015) Fonio (Digitaria exilis) in West Africa: towards improving nutrient quality, Fonio (Digitaria exilis) in West Africa: towards improving nutrient quality. Wageningen University. Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20153331057 (Accessed: 20 September 2020).
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Koréissi, Y 2015, ‘Fonio (Digitaria exilis) in West Africa: towards improving nutrient quality’, Wageningen University, Wageningen; Netherlands, Fonio (Digitaria exilis) in West Africa: towards improving nutrient quality, p. 178, viewed 20 September 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Koréissi, Y. “Fonio (Digitaria Exilis) in West Africa: Towards Improving Nutrient Quality.” Fonio (Digitaria Exilis) in West Africa: Towards Improving Nutrient Quality, Wageningen University, 2015, p. 178. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20153331057.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Koréissi, Y. “Fonio (Digitaria Exilis) in West Africa: Towards Improving Nutrient Quality.” Fonio (Digitaria Exilis) in West Africa: Towards Improving Nutrient Quality. Wageningen University, 2015. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20153331057.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Koréissi Y. Fonio (Digitaria exilis) in West Africa: towards improving nutrient quality [Internet]. Fonio (Digitaria exilis) in West Africa: towards improving nutrient quality. [Wageningen; Netherlands]: Wageningen University; 2015 [cited 2020 Sep 20]. p. 178. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20153331057