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Overweight and obesity in primary-school children: a surveillance system for policy-making in Europe from 2007 onwards.

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  • Additional Information
    • Author(s):
    • Address:
      Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    • Publication Information:
      Netherlands
    • Abstract:
      Background: As a follow-up to the European Ministerial Conference on Counteracting Obesity convened in 2006 in Turkey, the European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) was launched by the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization (WHO). COSI, a collaboration between WHO and interested Member States, aims to monitor the magnitude of overweight and obesity among primary-school children in European countries, to allow intercountry comparisons and to identify regional differences for informed policy-making. It collects at regular intervals data on weight and height of primary-school children and on their nutrition and physical activity behaviours, as well as on school environmental characteristics supportive to healthy nutrition and physical activity. Methods: The research described in this PhD thesis is based on the data collected in the first two COSI rounds by 12 European countries in school year 2007/2008 and by 13 European countries in school year 2009/2010. Nationally representative samples of children aged 6-9 years were drawn, whereby a majority of the countries applied a two-stage school-based cluster sampling approach. A total of 168 832 children in school year 2007/2008 and 224 920 children in school year 2009/2010 were included in the anthropometric intercountry data analyses. Results: In both school years, a wide range in overweight and obesity prevalence estimates was found that differed significantly by country, as well as by European region. In all countries, the percentage of overweight children was about 20% or more (range: 18-57%), and the percentage of obese children was 5% or more (range: 5-31%). The findings suggest the presence of a north-south gradient with the highest overweight and obesity prevalence estimates found in southern European countries. The clothes-adjusted overweight prevalence estimates were lower by as much as 12% than the unadjusted estimates. Monthly BMI-for-age Z-score values within countries did not show systematic seasonal effects. Large between-country differences were observed in both school years in the availability of food items or beverages on the school premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12-95% of schools) and in the organization of initiatives to promote a healthy lifestyle in the selected classes (range: 42-97%). The provision of physical education lessons and the availability of school playgrounds were more uniformly present across the countries (range: 76-100%). A large variation was also seen in school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30-0.93) whereby countries with a low score (<0.70) graded less than three out of five characteristics as supportive. High-score countries showed more often than low-score countries a combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks on the school premises. The prevalence of all 13 health-risk behaviours differed significantly across countries. For instance, the percentage of children who ate 'foods like candy bars or chocolate' >3 days/week ranged from 2.2% to 63.4%; this figure ranged from 1.1% to 46.5% for those who ate 'foods like potato chips (crisps), corn chips, popcorn or peanuts' >3 days/week. The range for children who did not have breakfast every day was between 4.4% and 32.5%, and from 4.8% to 35.0% for those who did not play outside ≥1 hour/day. Not having breakfast daily and spending screen time ≥2 hours/day were clearly positively associated with obesity. The same was true for eating 'foods like pizza, French fries, hamburgers, sausages or meat pies' >3 days/week and playing outside <1 hour/day. While a combination of multiple less favourable physical activity behaviours was clearly positively associated with obesity, a combination of the presence of multiple unhealthy eating behaviours did not lead to higher odds of obesity.
    • Number of References:
      many ref.
    • Subject Terms:
      Potatoes;Leisure, Recreation, Tourism;Human Nutrition
    • Subject Terms:
    • Accession Number:
      anthropometric measurements, behavior, drinks, fatness, feeding behavior, French fries, peanuts, potato chips, risk behavior, school buildings, school kids, schoolchildren
    • CABICODES:
      Education and Training (CC100)
      Sport and Recreational Activities (UU625) (New March 2000)
      Human Nutrition (General) (VV100)
      Diet Studies (VV110)
      Nutrition Related Disorders and Therapeutic Nutrition (VV130)
    • Publication Information:
      Thesis; ISBN:9789462574656
    • Accession Number:
      20153364693
    • Copyright:
      ©2015 CAB International
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      WIJNHOVEN, T. M. A. Overweight and obesity in primary-school children: a surveillance system for policy-making in Europe from 2007 onwards. 2015. Wageningen University, Wageningen; Netherlands, 2015. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20153364693. Acesso em: 27 set. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Wijnhoven TMA. Overweight and obesity in primary-school children: a surveillance system for policy-making in Europe from 2007 onwards. Overweight and obesity in primary-school children: a surveillance system for policy-making in Europe from 2007 onwards. 2015:266. Accessed September 27, 2020. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20153364693
    • APA:
      Wijnhoven, T. M. A. (2015). Overweight and obesity in primary-school children: a surveillance system for policy-making in Europe from 2007 onwards [Wageningen University]. In Overweight and obesity in primary-school children: a surveillance system for policy-making in Europe from 2007 onwards (p. 266).
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Wijnhoven, T. M. A. 2015. “Overweight and Obesity in Primary-School Children: A Surveillance System for Policy-Making in Europe from 2007 Onwards.” Overweight and Obesity in Primary-School Children: A Surveillance System for Policy-Making in Europe from 2007 Onwards. Wageningen; Netherlands: Wageningen University. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20153364693.
    • Harvard:
      Wijnhoven, T. M. A. (2015) Overweight and obesity in primary-school children: a surveillance system for policy-making in Europe from 2007 onwards, Overweight and obesity in primary-school children: a surveillance system for policy-making in Europe from 2007 onwards. Wageningen University. Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20153364693 (Accessed: 27 September 2020).
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Wijnhoven, TMA 2015, ‘Overweight and obesity in primary-school children: a surveillance system for policy-making in Europe from 2007 onwards’, Wageningen University, Wageningen; Netherlands, Overweight and obesity in primary-school children: a surveillance system for policy-making in Europe from 2007 onwards, p. 266, viewed 27 September 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Wijnhoven, T. M. A. “Overweight and Obesity in Primary-School Children: A Surveillance System for Policy-Making in Europe from 2007 Onwards.” Overweight and Obesity in Primary-School Children: A Surveillance System for Policy-Making in Europe from 2007 Onwards, Wageningen University, 2015, p. 266. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20153364693.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Wijnhoven, T. M. A. “Overweight and Obesity in Primary-School Children: A Surveillance System for Policy-Making in Europe from 2007 Onwards.” Overweight and Obesity in Primary-School Children: A Surveillance System for Policy-Making in Europe from 2007 Onwards. Wageningen University, 2015. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20153364693.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Wijnhoven TMA. Overweight and obesity in primary-school children: a surveillance system for policy-making in Europe from 2007 onwards [Internet]. Overweight and obesity in primary-school children: a surveillance system for policy-making in Europe from 2007 onwards. [Wageningen; Netherlands]: Wageningen University; 2015 [cited 2020 Sep 27]. p. 266. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20153364693