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Evaluation of dietary intake and nutritional supplement use of elite and sub-elite Dutch athletes: Dutch Sport Nutrition and Supplement Study.

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  • Additional Information
    • Author(s):
    • Publication Information:
      Netherlands
    • Abstract:
      Athletes competing at the highest levels within their sports categories differ from the general population in many ways. They are considerably more physically active and their daily pattern is characterized by intensive training routines, periodisation and competition. Hence, adequate intake of energy and nutrients is of great importance for this population to ensure optimal performance and recovery during training or competition and also to minimize health risks. Several athletes experience difficulties in meeting the recommendations or their personal goals. Current methods for dietary assessment in athletes still leave much room for improvement. The preferred five-step, multiple pass, 24-hour recall method is highly standardized and considered to produce a reliable estimation of dietary intake. Next to this, other methods are in use, i.e. those using food records, to assess the adequacy of the diet of athletes. As recommended for years, the use of estimated average requirement (EAR or AR) is preferred as a reference standard, but nevertheless the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is still most often used for assessment of the athlete's diet. Only a relatively small number of European studies have been published compared to those from the USA and Australia. The use of nutritional supplements has increased over the years, both by athletes and by the general population, but data relating to the dietary intake of-, and nutritional supplement use by athletes in the Netherlands is lacking. The same holds true for our knowledge on the current situation regarding intake levels from the basal diet of well-trained competitive Dutch athletes. The introduction of web-based dietary assessment tools makes it possible to include large samples at relatively low costs. The main objective and starting point of this thesis was to obtain a better understanding of the current nutritional intake of (sub)elite athletes in the Netherlands and to evaluate current practices in view of the existing guidelines and developments in the field. The thesis focuses in particular on the intake of macro and micronutrients from the basal diet and the use and contribution of nutritional supplements to these figures. The Dutch Sport Nutrition and Supplement Study (DSSS) described dietary intake of a large representative group of well-trained competitive athletes belonging to the international elite, who are the best in their age group or are at least active at the highest national level in their sport disciplines. All athletes exercised for more than 9 hours a week, and in many cases multiple times a day. The novelty of this study arises from its use of properly validated dietary assessment and evaluation methods and the large sample size collected in a relatively short amount of time (3 years). Since the beginning of this century only a limited number of studies have been published with such a large sample size comparable to the present studies for, a: the dietary assessment survey described in chapters 3a and 3b (n=553, including both men and women categorized in the disciplines of endurance, team and strength sports based on 20 different types of sports) and the cross-sectional nutritional supplement questionnaires, and b: the general population (n=1544, both men and women representing ages in a range of 15-80 years), and c: elite athletes (n=778, both men and women, of which 51% had an elite status from the Dutch Olympic committee).
    • Number of References:
      many ref.
    • Subject Terms:
      Leisure, Recreation, Tourism;Human Nutrition
    • Subject Terms:
    • Accession Number:
      aneurin, axerophthol, energy drinks, food history, microelements, multivitamins, niacin, RDA, recommended dietary intakes, sports nutrition, thiamine, vitamin A, vitamin A alcohol, vitamin A1, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin C
    • CABICODES:
      Other Produce (QQ070)
      Sport and Recreational Activities (UU625) (New March 2000)
      Human Nutrition (General) (VV100)
      Diet Studies (VV110)
    • Accession Number:
      50-81-7; 58-08-2; 7440-70-2; 7439-89-6; 59-67-6; 68-26-8; 83-88-5; 7782-49-2; 59-43-8; 1406-16-2; 1406-18-4
    • Publication Information:
      Thesis; ISBN:9789463430326URL:http://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/fulltext/399863
    • Accession Number:
      20173115434
    • Copyright:
      ©2017 CAB International
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      WARDENAAR, F. Evaluation of dietary intake and nutritional supplement use of elite and sub-elite Dutch athletes: Dutch Sport Nutrition and Supplement Study. 2017. Wageningen University, Wageningen; Netherlands, 2017. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20173115434. Acesso em: 21 set. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Wardenaar F. Evaluation of dietary intake and nutritional supplement use of elite and sub-elite Dutch athletes: Dutch Sport Nutrition and Supplement Study. Evaluation of dietary intake and nutritional supplement use of elite and sub-elite Dutch athletes: Dutch Sport Nutrition and Supplement Study. 2017:189. Accessed September 21, 2020. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20173115434
    • APA:
      Wardenaar, F. (2017). Evaluation of dietary intake and nutritional supplement use of elite and sub-elite Dutch athletes: Dutch Sport Nutrition and Supplement Study [Wageningen University]. In Evaluation of dietary intake and nutritional supplement use of elite and sub-elite Dutch athletes: Dutch Sport Nutrition and Supplement Study (p. 189).
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Wardenaar, F. 2017. “Evaluation of Dietary Intake and Nutritional Supplement Use of Elite and Sub-Elite Dutch Athletes: Dutch Sport Nutrition and Supplement Study.” Evaluation of Dietary Intake and Nutritional Supplement Use of Elite and Sub-Elite Dutch Athletes: Dutch Sport Nutrition and Supplement Study. Wageningen; Netherlands: Wageningen University. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20173115434.
    • Harvard:
      Wardenaar, F. (2017) Evaluation of dietary intake and nutritional supplement use of elite and sub-elite Dutch athletes: Dutch Sport Nutrition and Supplement Study, Evaluation of dietary intake and nutritional supplement use of elite and sub-elite Dutch athletes: Dutch Sport Nutrition and Supplement Study. Wageningen University. Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20173115434 (Accessed: 21 September 2020).
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Wardenaar, F 2017, ‘Evaluation of dietary intake and nutritional supplement use of elite and sub-elite Dutch athletes: Dutch Sport Nutrition and Supplement Study’, Wageningen University, Wageningen; Netherlands, Evaluation of dietary intake and nutritional supplement use of elite and sub-elite Dutch athletes: Dutch Sport Nutrition and Supplement Study, p. 189, viewed 21 September 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Wardenaar, F. “Evaluation of Dietary Intake and Nutritional Supplement Use of Elite and Sub-Elite Dutch Athletes: Dutch Sport Nutrition and Supplement Study.” Evaluation of Dietary Intake and Nutritional Supplement Use of Elite and Sub-Elite Dutch Athletes: Dutch Sport Nutrition and Supplement Study, Wageningen University, 2017, p. 189. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20173115434.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Wardenaar, F. “Evaluation of Dietary Intake and Nutritional Supplement Use of Elite and Sub-Elite Dutch Athletes: Dutch Sport Nutrition and Supplement Study.” Evaluation of Dietary Intake and Nutritional Supplement Use of Elite and Sub-Elite Dutch Athletes: Dutch Sport Nutrition and Supplement Study. Wageningen University, 2017. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20173115434.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Wardenaar F. Evaluation of dietary intake and nutritional supplement use of elite and sub-elite Dutch athletes: Dutch Sport Nutrition and Supplement Study [Internet]. Evaluation of dietary intake and nutritional supplement use of elite and sub-elite Dutch athletes: Dutch Sport Nutrition and Supplement Study. [Wageningen; Netherlands]: Wageningen University; 2017 [cited 2020 Sep 21]. p. 189. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20173115434