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Replication, stimulation of immune response and host-adaptation of different chlamydial species in human and bovine monocyte-derived macrophages.

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  • Additional Information
    • Author(s):
    • Publication Information:
      Germany
    • Abstract:
      This study was conducted to determine the adaptation of the pathogen to cellular and immunological processes of the host (host adaptation). Replication of Chlamydiae, their cytokine expression profile, the viability of the macrophages and their reaction to infection were of special interest. The first step of the experiments was to isolate and cultivate human and bovine monocyte-derived macrophages from whole blood samples of healthy donors. The cultivated cells were inoculated with C. pneumoniae, C. psittaci or C. muridarum. The results of these studies were separated into the following topics: growth and survival of the Chlamydiae, host response, and transcriptional characteristics of the chlamydiae. C. pneumoniae was not able to complete its replication cycle within 48 h, as no elementary bodies were released into the supernatant. The increase of the mRNA expression of rpoN and IncA showed that it remained metabolically active. C. pneumoniae only marginally activated the macrophages and was not able to initialize an appropriate polarization to M1 or M2. The bovine macrophages were infected ineffectively as well. However, PCR-data revealed more chlamydiae in bovine macrophages than in human macrophages. Light and fluorescence microscopy revealed possible inclusions 24 hpi which indicated a slightly faster reproduction cycle of C. pneumoniae in bovine macrophages to human macrophages. C. psittaci clearly proliferated in the two examined hosts. The expression of the virulence factors ftsW, rpoN and IncA were increased. The replication in bovine macrophages was significantly higher compared to human macrophages. Bovine macrophages were destroyed earlier than human macrophages. Reticular bodies were also found outside the chlamydial inclusion in both hosts. C. psittaci produced a more severe inflammatory reaction in bovine macrophages than observed inhuman macrophages. A definite distinction between M1 and M2 macrophages of the human macrophages could not be achieved. C. muridarum was not able to establish an effective infection in both hosts, because no new elementary bodies were released. However, in both hosts a severe inflammatory reaction of the macrophages was triggered. This was observed by the release of nitric oxide and the expression of major inflammatory cytokines. A phenotype similar to M1-macrophages was developed in human macrophages. The expression of CD14, CD40 and CD86 was increased, a sign for the activation of immune cells. C. muridarum was not adapted well to a human or bovine host. It is suggested that this study provides into the replication of different chlamydial species in diverse host. The adaptation to intracellular life and the host is different from species to species.
    • Number of References:
      many ref.
    • Subject Terms:
      Veterinary Science;Veterinary Science;Public Health
    • Subject Terms:
    • Accession Number:
      DNA transcription
    • CABICODES:
      Prion, Viral, Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens of Animals (LL821) (New March 2000)
      Prion, Viral, Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens of Humans (VV210) (New March 2000)
      Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms (ZZ394) (New March 2000)
    • Publication Information:
      Thesis; ISBN:9783863878962
    • Accession Number:
      20183393728
    • Copyright:
      ©2019 CAB International
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      HILLARIUS, K. Replication, stimulation of immune response and host-adaptation of different chlamydial species in human and bovine monocyte-derived macrophages. / Replikation, Immunstimulation und Wirtsadaptation verschiedener Chlamydienspezies in humanen und bovinen monozyten-gereiften Makrophagen. 2018. Mensch & Buch Verlag, Berlin; Germany, 2018. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20183393728. Acesso em: 27 set. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Hillarius K. Replication, stimulation of immune response and host-adaptation of different chlamydial species in human and bovine monocyte-derived macrophages. / Replikation, Immunstimulation und Wirtsadaptation verschiedener Chlamydienspezies in humanen und bovinen monozyten-gereiften Makrophagen. Replikation, Immunstimulation und Wirtsadaptation verschiedener Chlamydienspezies in humanen und bovinen monozyten-gereiften Makrophagen. 2018:xii + 172. Accessed September 27, 2020. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20183393728
    • APA:
      Hillarius, K. (2018). Replication, stimulation of immune response and host-adaptation of different chlamydial species in human and bovine monocyte-derived macrophages. / Replikation, Immunstimulation und Wirtsadaptation verschiedener Chlamydienspezies in humanen und bovinen monozyten-gereiften Makrophagen [Mensch & Buch Verlag]. In Replikation, Immunstimulation und Wirtsadaptation verschiedener Chlamydienspezies in humanen und bovinen monozyten-gereiften Makrophagen (p. xii + 172).
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Hillarius, K. 2018. “Replication, Stimulation of Immune Response and Host-Adaptation of Different Chlamydial Species in Human and Bovine Monocyte-Derived Macrophages. / Replikation, Immunstimulation Und Wirtsadaptation Verschiedener Chlamydienspezies in Humanen Und Bovinen Monozyten-Gereiften Makrophagen.” Replikation, Immunstimulation Und Wirtsadaptation Verschiedener Chlamydienspezies in Humanen Und Bovinen Monozyten-Gereiften Makrophagen. Berlin; Germany: Mensch & Buch Verlag. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20183393728.
    • Harvard:
      Hillarius, K. (2018) Replication, stimulation of immune response and host-adaptation of different chlamydial species in human and bovine monocyte-derived macrophages. / Replikation, Immunstimulation und Wirtsadaptation verschiedener Chlamydienspezies in humanen und bovinen monozyten-gereiften Makrophagen, Replikation, Immunstimulation und Wirtsadaptation verschiedener Chlamydienspezies in humanen und bovinen monozyten-gereiften Makrophagen. Mensch & Buch Verlag. Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20183393728 (Accessed: 27 September 2020).
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Hillarius, K 2018, ‘Replication, stimulation of immune response and host-adaptation of different chlamydial species in human and bovine monocyte-derived macrophages. / Replikation, Immunstimulation und Wirtsadaptation verschiedener Chlamydienspezies in humanen und bovinen monozyten-gereiften Makrophagen’, Mensch & Buch Verlag, Berlin; Germany, Replikation, Immunstimulation und Wirtsadaptation verschiedener Chlamydienspezies in humanen und bovinen monozyten-gereiften Makrophagen, p. xii + 172, viewed 27 September 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Hillarius, K. “Replication, Stimulation of Immune Response and Host-Adaptation of Different Chlamydial Species in Human and Bovine Monocyte-Derived Macrophages. / Replikation, Immunstimulation Und Wirtsadaptation Verschiedener Chlamydienspezies in Humanen Und Bovinen Monozyten-Gereiften Makrophagen.” Replikation, Immunstimulation Und Wirtsadaptation Verschiedener Chlamydienspezies in Humanen Und Bovinen Monozyten-Gereiften Makrophagen, Mensch & Buch Verlag, 2018, p. xii + 172. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20183393728.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Hillarius, K. “Replication, Stimulation of Immune Response and Host-Adaptation of Different Chlamydial Species in Human and Bovine Monocyte-Derived Macrophages. / Replikation, Immunstimulation Und Wirtsadaptation Verschiedener Chlamydienspezies in Humanen Und Bovinen Monozyten-Gereiften Makrophagen.” Replikation, Immunstimulation Und Wirtsadaptation Verschiedener Chlamydienspezies in Humanen Und Bovinen Monozyten-Gereiften Makrophagen. Mensch & Buch Verlag, 2018. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20183393728.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Hillarius K. Replication, stimulation of immune response and host-adaptation of different chlamydial species in human and bovine monocyte-derived macrophages. / Replikation, Immunstimulation und Wirtsadaptation verschiedener Chlamydienspezies in humanen und bovinen monozyten-gereiften Makrophagen [Internet]. Replikation, Immunstimulation und Wirtsadaptation verschiedener Chlamydienspezies in humanen und bovinen monozyten-gereiften Makrophagen. [Berlin; Germany]: Mensch & Buch Verlag; 2018 [cited 2020 Sep 27]. p. xii + 172. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20183393728