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Investigation of the prevalence of pathogens transmitted by arthropods and gastropods in dogs in the Berlin/Brandenburg area.

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  • Additional Information
    • Author(s):
    • Address:
      Tierärztin aus Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    • Publication Information:
      Germany
    • Abstract:
      Vector-borne diseases are spreading as a result of global warming, changes in land use and socioeconomic factors. They pose a significant health risk to animals and humans. A previous PCR-based study had found low prevalences of vector-borne pathogens in dogs in Brandenburg and no evidence of autochthonous transmission of Babesia spp., Ehrlichia canis and filaroids. Nevertheless, increasing prevalences are reported and also repeatedly autochthonous occurrence of various vector-borne diseases in previously non-endemic regions. For the present study, a total of 1008 serum samples were collected from dogs from Berlin and Brandenburg between May 2016 and April 2018 and tested for antibodies against or circulating antigens of vector-borne pathogens. The samples were analyzed with the IDEXX SNAP®4Dx®PIus test for antibodies against Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia spp. and Dirofilaria immitis antigen. Conventional ELISAs were used to detect antibodies against Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp., Leishmania spp., Dirofilaria spp. as well as Angiostrongylus vasorum and A. vasorum antigen. In addition, DNA samples from a previous study targeting dogs and foxes in Brandenburg were tested for Hepatozoon canis by PCR. In these tests, antibodies against Dirofilaria spp. were detected in 22 of 1008 serum samples (2.2%). Of these, 3 (0.03%) samples were also positive for D. immitis antigen in the SNAP-test. In the SNAP-test, 66 (6.5%) samples were positive for Anaplasma spp., 9 (0.1%) for Ehrlichia spp. and 17 (1.7%) of the 1008 samples tested positive for Borrelia spp. In contrast, 306 of 1001 samples (30.6%) in the antigen-based Anaplasma-ELISA showed a positive result. The subsequent IFAT tests could not clarify the different results. In the case of A. vasorum, 29 of 1008 (2.9%) samples were antigen positive and 35 (3.5%) were antibody positive. In 12 (1.2%) samples, a positive result was detected in both ELISAs. Babesia spp. antibodies were detected in 26 of 1008 (2.6%) tested samples. Two ELISAs and one IFAT were used for the Leishmania spp. test, so that 16 definitely positive dogs (positive in at least two tests) can be assumed in the study. This corresponds to a prevalence of 1.4% in 991 tested samples. With the H. canis PCR, 46 of 1050 dogs (4.4%) and 156 of 201 foxes (77.6%) were positive. Genotyping was performed on 19 dog blood samples and 52 fox spleen samples and a phylogenetic analysis was performed based on the location. Furthermore, a clarification of the travel history of the positive dogs as well as a confirmation of the serological results by PCR were attempted. Unfortunately, only very few sample submissions were received for the PCR tests. The documentation of the travel history was possible in many cases and thus probably autochthonous cases could be identified. The Dirofilaria-positive cases included four dogs that had not left Germany. The same number of Babesia-positive dogs was found. Another two dogs tested positive for Leishmania spp. and nine H. canis positive dogs had no travel background. Sequence data are available for seven of the nine autochthonous H. canis cases and the haplotype was identical to the major haplotype in the local fox population for six cases. These results provide clear indications for the risk of further spread of vector-borne diseases and clearly indicate that endemicity must be expected.
    • Subject Terms:
      Veterinary Science;Medical & Veterinary Entomology;Veterinary Science;Protozoology;Tropical Diseases
    • Subject Terms:
    • Accession Number:
      endemicity, antigenicity, immunogens, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, climatic change, fluorescent antibody technique, IFAT, biochemical genetics, PCR, socioeconomic aspects, systematics
    • CABICODES:
      Diagnosis of Animal Diseases (LL886) (New March 2000)
      Prion, Viral, Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens of Animals (LL821) (New March 2000)
      Meteorology and Climate (PP500)
      Land Resources (PP300)
    • Publication Information:
      Thesis; ISBN:9783863879822
    • Accession Number:
      20203356224
    • Copyright:
      ©2020 CAB International
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      HELM, C. S. Investigation of the prevalence of pathogens transmitted by arthropods and gastropods in dogs in the Berlin/Brandenburg area. / Untersuchung zum Vorkommen von durch Arthropoden und Gastropoden übertragenen pathogenen bei Hunden im Raum Berlin/Brandenburg. 2019. Mensch & Buch Verlag, Berlin; Germany, 2019. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20203356224. Acesso em: 23 nov. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Helm CS. Investigation of the prevalence of pathogens transmitted by arthropods and gastropods in dogs in the Berlin/Brandenburg area. / Untersuchung zum Vorkommen von durch Arthropoden und Gastropoden übertragenen pathogenen bei Hunden im Raum Berlin/Brandenburg. Untersuchung zum Vorkommen von durch Arthropoden und Gastropoden übertragenen Pathogenen bei Hunden im Raum Berlin/Brandenburg. 2019:xxiii + 192. Accessed November 23, 2020. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20203356224
    • APA:
      Helm, C. S. (2019). Investigation of the prevalence of pathogens transmitted by arthropods and gastropods in dogs in the Berlin/Brandenburg area. / Untersuchung zum Vorkommen von durch Arthropoden und Gastropoden übertragenen pathogenen bei Hunden im Raum Berlin/Brandenburg [Mensch & Buch Verlag]. In Untersuchung zum Vorkommen von durch Arthropoden und Gastropoden übertragenen Pathogenen bei Hunden im Raum Berlin/Brandenburg (p. xxiii + 192).
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Helm, C. S. 2019. “Investigation of the Prevalence of Pathogens Transmitted by Arthropods and Gastropods in Dogs in the Berlin/Brandenburg Area. / Untersuchung Zum Vorkommen von Durch Arthropoden Und Gastropoden Übertragenen Pathogenen Bei Hunden Im Raum Berlin/Brandenburg.” Untersuchung Zum Vorkommen von Durch Arthropoden Und Gastropoden Übertragenen Pathogenen Bei Hunden Im Raum Berlin/Brandenburg. Berlin; Germany: Mensch & Buch Verlag. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20203356224.
    • Harvard:
      Helm, C. S. (2019) Investigation of the prevalence of pathogens transmitted by arthropods and gastropods in dogs in the Berlin/Brandenburg area. / Untersuchung zum Vorkommen von durch Arthropoden und Gastropoden übertragenen pathogenen bei Hunden im Raum Berlin/Brandenburg, Untersuchung zum Vorkommen von durch Arthropoden und Gastropoden übertragenen Pathogenen bei Hunden im Raum Berlin/Brandenburg. Mensch & Buch Verlag. Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20203356224 (Accessed: 23 November 2020).
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Helm, CS 2019, ‘Investigation of the prevalence of pathogens transmitted by arthropods and gastropods in dogs in the Berlin/Brandenburg area. / Untersuchung zum Vorkommen von durch Arthropoden und Gastropoden übertragenen pathogenen bei Hunden im Raum Berlin/Brandenburg’, Mensch & Buch Verlag, Berlin; Germany, Untersuchung zum Vorkommen von durch Arthropoden und Gastropoden übertragenen Pathogenen bei Hunden im Raum Berlin/Brandenburg, p. xxiii + 192, viewed 23 November 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Helm, C. S. “Investigation of the Prevalence of Pathogens Transmitted by Arthropods and Gastropods in Dogs in the Berlin/Brandenburg Area. / Untersuchung Zum Vorkommen von Durch Arthropoden Und Gastropoden Übertragenen Pathogenen Bei Hunden Im Raum Berlin/Brandenburg.” Untersuchung Zum Vorkommen von Durch Arthropoden Und Gastropoden Übertragenen Pathogenen Bei Hunden Im Raum Berlin/Brandenburg, Mensch & Buch Verlag, 2019, p. xxiii + 192. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20203356224.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Helm, C. S. “Investigation of the Prevalence of Pathogens Transmitted by Arthropods and Gastropods in Dogs in the Berlin/Brandenburg Area. / Untersuchung Zum Vorkommen von Durch Arthropoden Und Gastropoden Übertragenen Pathogenen Bei Hunden Im Raum Berlin/Brandenburg.” Untersuchung Zum Vorkommen von Durch Arthropoden Und Gastropoden Übertragenen Pathogenen Bei Hunden Im Raum Berlin/Brandenburg. Mensch & Buch Verlag, 2019. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20203356224.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Helm CS. Investigation of the prevalence of pathogens transmitted by arthropods and gastropods in dogs in the Berlin/Brandenburg area. / Untersuchung zum Vorkommen von durch Arthropoden und Gastropoden übertragenen pathogenen bei Hunden im Raum Berlin/Brandenburg [Internet]. Untersuchung zum Vorkommen von durch Arthropoden und Gastropoden übertragenen Pathogenen bei Hunden im Raum Berlin/Brandenburg. [Berlin; Germany]: Mensch & Buch Verlag; 2019 [cited 2020 Nov 23]. p. xxiii + 192. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=lhh&AN=20203356224