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Targeting toll-like receptor 4 signalling pathways: can therapeutics pay the toll for hypertension?

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    • Abstract:
      The immune system plays a prominent role in the initiation and maintenance of hypertension. The innate immune system, via toll-like receptors (TLRs), identifies distinct signatures of invading microbes and damage-associated molecular patterns and triggers a chain of downstream signalling cascades, leading to secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and shaping the adaptive immune response. Over the past decade, a dysfunctional TLR-mediated response, particularly via TLR4, has been suggested to support a chronic inflammatory state in hypertension, inducing deleterious local and systemic effects in host cells and tissues and contributing to disease progression. While the underlying mechanisms triggering TLR4 need further research, evidence suggests that sustained elevations in BP disrupt homeostasis, releasing endogenous TLR4 ligands in hypertension. In this review, we discuss the emerging role of TLR4 in the pathogenesis of hypertension and whether targeting this receptor and its signalling pathways could offer a therapeutic strategy for management of this multifaceted disease. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed section on Immune Targets in Hypertension. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v176.12/issuetoc. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]